By Adam Cruise
As today is World Nature Conservation Day it may be fitting to bring up the current but somewhat prickly dispute regarding the conservation of wild animals. It is a wrangle that has polarised into two diametrically opposed camps. Both sides vociferously claim that theirs is the best strategy while denouncing the other’s lack of accreditation when it comes to preserving the world’s wildlife heritage.
Another school of thought that takes the notion of ‘conservation’ at its most simplified: maintaining the survival of a species, no matter the cost. Ensuring the continued existence of a species, especially those that are critically endangered or facing extinction appears to be a good conservation principle. One may wonder why anyone would refute it except that it both ignores the welfare and rights of animals as well as opening up the possibility of turning wild beings into…well…beings that are no longer wild. This is why such emphatic objections have been raised.
The dispute is nowhere more marked than in South Africa primarily because the country is currently facing an unprecedented attack on its wildlife by highly organised and prolific global crime syndicates that threaten their existence. The most newsworthy are rhinos. Already 2014 is set to break yet another consecutive record on the amount of rhinos killed. However, the government and many conservationists believe they have found a solution to the crisis – by sustainably utilising them.
Ostensibly, the idea is to give in to the demand for horn by allowing the product to be traded. It is hoped that by allowing trade the demand will be met as well as managed. Prices of rhino horn could be driven down since it will be more freely available and the devious criminal masterminds would be put off trading illicitly since it will no longer be cost-effective.
Yet, they can’t implement sustainable utilisation because legalised trade is forbidden by an international CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) resolution. CITES, by consensus of its 179 member states, has decreed that because both species of African rhino are endangered, rhino horn is not allowed to be traded. International consensus is therefore opposed to South Africa’s strategy. Why?
One reason is that legalised trade has been attempted before, with disastrous consequences. In 2008 CITES temporarily lifted the ban on trading ivory by allowing the Southern African bloc to sell over 100 tons to China. That triggered a tsunami of illegal poaching that saw elephant numbers decimated across most of the continent. The demand was fuelled, not so much by more available ivory on the Chinese market, but because millions of law-abiding consumers were suddenly brought into the market with the advantage they could buy at more affordable prices.
Another reason, and this one is as murderous, has to do with the aforementioned welfare and rights of wild animals. For example, sustainable utilisation must consent to the practice of canned hunting as well as the notion of zoos and all forms of corralling of wild animals. The South African government has recently admitted that canned hunting is legitimate. They are right, under a policy of sustainable utilisation it is. As long as lion numbers are being preserved, lions may be bred in cages and then released, only to be shot by well-paying international clients. Money accrued goes into further breeding of lions with the added benefit that government, the breeder and maybe a nearby community can enjoy a capital spill-over. All around it’s a win-win situation, except if you are a lion. By the same token, rhinos may be rounded up and bred in captivity so as to harvest their horns, and cheetahs and pangolins kept in the confines of zoos to prevent them from going extinct.
All of this is in the name of nature conservation, except there is no ‘nature’ part. Preservation of numbers, it is; but conservation of wildlife, it is not. Nature conservation ought to respect the natural environment and its intrinsic wildness. It is not about transforming wild animals into mere commodities that can be shot, farmed or gawked from behind a fence.
Adam Cruise is an environmental writer, who is currently completing his Master’s degree in philosophy at Stellenbosch University.